England have played twelve extra-time matches, winning three and losing one with the remaining eight ending in draws. Seven of the eight extra-time draws went to penalty kick shootouts, formally known as "kicks from the penalty mark," the post-match procedure used since 1982 to determine which team advances and which is eliminated at the knockout stage of a tournament when a match remains drawn at the end of extra-time. England were successful in only one of these seven penalty kick shootouts; the other six ended in England's elimination from the tournament.
Extra-time is the traditional method used to try to produce a winning team after mach play over regulation time of 90 minutes has ended in a draw at the knockout stage of a tournament. The competition rules for the World Cup and the European Championship have provided for extra-time in elimination matches since the inception of these two tournaments.
Extra-time usually consists of 30 minutes, played in two periods of 15 minutes each, with the teams changing ends at the halfway point. An interval of five minutes usually intercedes between regulation time and extra-time. There is no break in play between the two periods of extra-time other than the time it takes the teams to change ends, although the players invariably take the opportunity to swig from water bottles.
Eight of England's twelve extra-time matches came at World Cup final tournaments and four at European Championship final tournaments. England have twice played multiple extra-time matches at a single tournament, three at World Cup 1990 and two at European Championship 1996. Four of England's extra-time matches were against West Germany/Germany with two each against Belgium and Portugal. The remaining four were against Cameroon, Spain, Argentina and Italy.
England have scored in five extra-time matches and have failed to score in seven. They scored six extra-time goals in those five matches. They scored two goals in extra-time on a single occasion, the 4-2 victory against West Germany in the World Cup 1966 final match.
England scored in four of their first five extra-time matches, although one of them, against Belgium in a first round group match at World Cup 1954 in Switzerland, still ended in a 4-4 draw because Belgium, too, scored in extra-time. But they have failed to score in six of their last seven extra-time matches, and the one in which they scored, the quarter-final against Portugal at European Championship 2004, still ended in a 2-2 draw because Portugal, too, scored in extra-time and advanced on penalty kicks. Only once have England scored a penalty kick goal in extra-time, against Cameroon at World Cup 1990.
England have conceded only three extra-time goals, against Belgium in the World Cup 1954 group match that ended in a 4-4 draw, against West Germany in the 3-2 loss that sent them home from the World Cup 1970 final tournament in Mexico, and against hosts Portugal in the 2-2 draw that led to a penalty kicks shootout that eliminated them from the European Championship 2004 final tournament. They have never conceded more than one extra-time goal in a match. They have conceded only one extra-time goal in their last eight extra-time matches. They have never conceded a penalty kick goal in extra-time.
There has been only one own goal scored during extra-time of these matches, by England's Jimmy Dickinson for Belgium at World Cup 1954.
Seven of England's eight extra-time draws occurred in tournament elimination matches and went to a penalty kick shootout, with England gaining advancement in only one of them and falling short in the other four. The other extra-time draw occurred in group play against Belgium at World Cup 1954, where extra-time was played in group matches if the score remained level after regulation time although tournament elimination was not immediately at stake. Under the peculiar arrangement in force for that tournament, each team played only two of the three other teams in the group, which made deadlocks in the group tables much more likely. Superiority in goal difference or goals scored was not then in use as a means of breaking deadlocks in points earned in group play. The hope was that extra-time would produce a winning team and thus avoid the need for a play-off match between teams level on points at the conclusion of group play.
Three of England's twelve extra-time matches came before penalty kick shootouts became, at World Cup 1982, the method of settling which team advanced in tournament play (or won the tournament in the case of a final match) when the score remained level after extra-time. In all three of these matches, extra-time produced goals by one or both teams. In two of them, extra-time goals produced a winning team. Only the World Cup 1954 group match against Belgium did not produce a winning team, and none was required because tournament advancement was not at stake.
In the nine extra-time matches played after adoption of the penalty kick shootout, extra-time produced goals on only three occasions, twice at World Cup 1990, when England beat Belgium, 1-0, and Cameroon, 3-2, on extra-time goals in successive matches, and once at European Championship 2004, when both England and Portugal both scored in extra-time to draw 2-2 and Portugal advanced on penalty kicks. Of these nine matches, extra-time goals thus produced a winning team on only two occasions. No goals were scored in extra-time in the four extra-time matches England played between the World Cup 1990 match against Cameroon and the European Championship 2004 draw with Portugal, including their third extra-time match of the World Cup 1990 tournament, the 1-1 semi-final draw with Germany. Thus England's last six extra-time matches--every one played since the extra-time World Cup 1990 quarterfinal victory against Cameroon--have gone to penalty kick shootouts, with England finishing on the short end in four of the six shootouts.
The status of extra-time has recently been in flux. Law 8 of The Laws of the Game (July, 2003) provides simply that "competition rules may provide for two further equal periods to be played." Law 10 stated, "For matches ending in a draw, competition rules may state provisions involving extra time, or other procedures approved by the International F.A. Board to determine the winner of a match." The rules of the particular competition thus determined whether and under what conditions extra-time was played.
In the mid-1990s, both FIFA and UEFA adopted the sudden death "golden goal" in an effort to reduce the number of extra-time matches going to a penalty kick shootout. No longer did the teams play to the end of extra-time after one of them scored; the match ended immediately on the scoring of the first extra-time goal. The penalty kick shootout was used only if neither team scored in the 30 minutes of extra-time. The golden goal rule first appeared in senior international play at the European Championship in 1996 and at the World Cup in 1998. The final matches at the European Championship tournaments of 1996 and 2000 were both settled by the scoring of a golden goal.
The golden goal rule drew a great deal of fire. Critics said it was unfair because it denied the team conceding a goal the opportunity to come back. They cited as an example the case where wind, sun position or pitch conditions strongly favour the team which scores in the first half of extra-time; the match will end with the team conceding the goal denied the opportunity, after the teams change ends at 15 minutes of extra-time, to enjoy the same advantages as the scoring team. The critics also claimed that the fear of yielding a goal with such drastic consequences encouraged even more defensive football, that it was questionable whether the golden goal effectively reduced the number of penalty kick shootouts, and that some of the greatest matches in history would have been cut short and shorn of the drama that made them great had the golden goal rule been in place.
In early 2003, in an effort to meet some--but only some--of these objections, UEFA announced it would replace the "golden goal" with the so-called "silver goal" in the elimination stages of its tournaments, including the European Championship 2004 final tournament. Later in the year UEFA put the new silver goal rule in place for the second-leg playoff matches between teams finishing second in the qualifying groups for the European Championship 2004 final tournament. If the two home and away playoff games ended with the teams level in points, in goals scored and in away goals scored, then extra-time would be played under the silver goal rule.
Under the "silver goal" rule, no longer was the team which scored the first extra-time goal the sudden death winner of the match. Instead, the teams played on until the end of the 15-minue period of extra-time in which the goal had been scored. If one team scored during the first half of the full 30 minutes of extra-time, the teams would play on until at least the end of that first half. If one team was ahead at the end of that first half of extra-time, it won the match. If the score remained level at the end of the first half of extra-time, either because no goals had been scored in that half or because both teams had scored an equal number of goals in the half, the teams would play the second 15-minute period of extra-time. Again, if one team scored in the second half of extra-time to break the deadlock, the teams would continue to play until the end of the full 30 minutes of extra-time. If one team was ahead at the conclusion of the full 30 minutes of extra-time, it won the match. If the score was level at the end of the full 30 minutes of extra-time, either because neither team had scored in extra-time or because they had scored an equal number of goals during extra-time, a penalty kick shootout was held to determine which team advanced in the tournament or, in the case of the final match, won the tournament.
On February 28, 2004, however, the International Football Association Board amended Law 10 to provide that only procedures it has approved are permitted where competition rules require determination of which team advances and which is eliminated after a match has been drawn in regulation time, and it specified that extra-time followed, if necessary, by a penalty kick shootout is the only approved method in that event. The ruling put an end to sudden death goals of both sorts, golden and silver. It meant that a full 30 minutes of extra-time must be played in all tournament elimination matches in which the teams are level on goals at the end of regulation time, followed by a penalty kick shootout if the score is still level at the end of extra-time. The decision, however, became effective only on 1 July 2004 and did not affect the European Championship 2004 final tournament, in which the silver goal rule governed.
England, of course, have never played a match in which a golden goal was scored by either side, although they played in three extra-time matches in which the golden goal rule was in effect, against Spain and Germany at European Championship 1996 and against Argentina at World Cup 1998.
At European Championship 2004, for the first and only time, England played an extra-time match in which the silver goal rule was in effect, the quarterfinal against Portugal. The silver goal rule did not, however, determine which team advanced although both team scored in extra-time. After regulation time ended with the teams level at 1-1, neither team scored during the first 15-minute period of extra-time. But Portugal went ahead during the second 15-minute period of extra-time, at 110 minutes, 2-1. Had the golden goal rule been in effect, the match would have ended then and there, with Portugal winning, 2-1. But, since the silver goal rule governed, the match continued until the end of the full 30 minutes of extra-time, and England managed to equalize at 115 minutes. Both teams having scored during extra-time to produce a 2-2 draw, the teams went to a penalty kick shootout, with Portugal advancing.